## Plancks Gesetz und Lichtquantenhypothese [Planck’s Law and Light Quantum Hypothesis]. WITH: Wärmegleichgewicht im Strahlungsfeld bei Anwesenheit von Materie

*“The paper by Bose is the fourth and last of the revolutionary papers of the old quantum theory (the other three being by, respectively, Planck [1900], Einstein [1905], and Bohr [1913])...” -Pais, Subtle is the Lord*

FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of the presentation of "Bose-Einstein statistics."

“In 1924 [Bose] found a way to derive Planck’s equation for black body radiation using a statistical approach based entirely on the idea that light is made up of tiny particles (photons). This echoed the statistical mechanics approach of Ludwig Boltzmann to the behaviour of gases, but using a different statistical rule; it derives black body radiation entirely in quantum terms, without using the idea of electromagnetic radiation at all. Bose wrote a paper about his discovery and sent it to Albert Einstein, who immediately saw its significance, translated it into German and arranged for its publication in the prestigious *Zeitschrift für Physik*. Einstein developed the idea to apply to other kinds of particle, not just to a ‘gas’ of photons, which is why this approach is usually referred to as ‘Bose-Einstein statistics’. Paul Dirac coined the name ‘bosons’ for particles which obey Bose-Einstein statistics" (Gribbin, *Q is for Quantum*).

*Particle Physics: One Hundred Years of Discoveries*: “Discovery of new statistical counting rules for light quanta and a new derivation of Planck’s radiation law. Known as Bose-Einstein quantum statistics for particles with integer spins.”

WITH a follow-up paper by Bose: "Wärmegleichgewicht im Strahlungsfeld bei Anwesenheit von Materie": "Bose's first paper in 'Zeitschrift für Physik' was followed by another that was also translated by Einstein and published during 1924. In it Bose provided a general statistical treatment of emission and absorption processes for electromagnetic radiation in equilibrium with matter. This paper was accompanied by a note by Einstein expressing serious doubts about the method. In January 1925 Bose wrote to Einstein from Paris that he was working on a paper he felt would remove these doubts. But it seems never to have been completed" (*DSB*).

Plancks Gesetz und Lichtquantenhypothese. IN: Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol 26, No. 3, August 1924, pp. 178-81. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1924. [“Wärmegleichgewicht”, Vol 27, No. 5/6, September 1924, pp. 384-93.] Octavo, original wrappers. “Planks Gesetz” with small closed tear at rear wrapper edge; otherwise fine condition; “Wärmegleichgewicht” with small chip to base of front wrapper. SCARCE in original wrappers.

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