Über die Gültigkeitsgrenze des Satzes von thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und über die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta [On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta]. ALBERT EINSTEIN.
Über die Gültigkeitsgrenze des Satzes von thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und über die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta [On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta]
Über die Gültigkeitsgrenze des Satzes von thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und über die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta [On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta]

Über die Gültigkeitsgrenze des Satzes von thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht und über die Möglichkeit einer neuen Bestimmung der Elementarquanta [On the Limit of Validity of the Law of Thermodynamic Equilibrium and on the Possibility of a New Determination of the Elementary Quanta]

FIRST EDITION IN EXTREMELY RARE ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of the theoretical basis of Einstein’s “Little Machine”.

In “On the Limit of Validity...”, "Einstein used the thermodynamic approach to fluctuations in Brownian motion to predict voltage fluctuations in condensers. To test his theory, he needed a new, highly sensitive instrument – more sensitive than the available electrometers, which could measure to a few thousandths of a volt. Einstein designed it, had it built, and famously called it his Maschinchen (Little Machine). He toyed with the idea of patenting it but then dismissed the notion when manufacturers showed little interest" (Calaprice,, The Einstein Almanac, 14). Einstein’s “Little Machine” is held with great affection in the physics community as an example of the experimental, practical side of the man who was the ultimate theorist. Three known versions of this machine are known to exist, at least one of which was used in an experiment conducted by Walter Gerlach. Weil 16. 



IN: Annalen der Physik, Band 22, No. 3, 1907; pp. 569-572. Leipzig: Barth. 1907. Octavo, original printed wrappers. Blind stamp on front wrapper (Bates College - long ago deaccessioned). Chipping to edges, wrappers and ads neatly detached. It is exceedingly rare to find Einstein papers published in Annalen der Physik in their original brittle wrappers.

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