## Die formale Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. [The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity]

FIRST EDITION in original wrappers of Einstein's important 1914 paper on the development of general relativity.

"In summer 1914, Einstein felt that the new theory [general relativity] should be presented in a comprehensive review. He also felt that a mathematical derivation of the field equations that would determine them uniquely was still missing.

"Both tasks are addressed in a long paper, presented in October 1914 to the Prussian Academy for publication in it Sitzungsberichte. It is entitles 'The formal foundation of the general theory of relativity'; here, for the first time, Einstein gave the new theory of relativity the epithet 'general' in lieu of the more cautious 'generalized' that he had used for the Entwurf" (*Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940*).

"According to John Norton ('How Einstein Found His Field Equations'), this major review article was intended to convey the full content of the 1913 'Entwurf' theory: 'The principal novelty lies in the mathematical formulation of the theory. Drawing on earlier work with [Marcel] Grossman, Einstein formulated his gravitational field equations using a variation principle. Using this richer mathematical structure Einstein offered a proof purporting to demonstrate that his theory had the maximum covariance compatible with the hole argument; that is, covariance under 'justified' transformation between the 'adapted coordinate systems' he had introduced with Grossman'" (Calaprice, *The Einstein Almanac*).

IN: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, XLI, 19 November 1914, pp. 1030-1085. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1914. Octavo, original wrappers; custom box. A few tiny pencil marks on front cover; small closed tear to upper wrapper corner; a little wear at spine ends. Text unopened. Rare in original wrappers.

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