Item #43 Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, Nathan Rosen.

Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?

"We are thus forced to conclude that the quantum-mechanical description of physical reality given by wave functions is not complete."

FIRST EDITION of one of the most discussed and debated papers of modern physics.

In their landmark 1935 paper, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen conducted a detailed thought experiment to address the logical impossibility of quantum mechanics, ultimately concluding that because, in quantum mechanics, every element of physical reality did not have a counterpart in the physical theory, it could not be a complete theory or description of nature. Specifically, the EPR Paradox (as their study became known) argued for the presence of some "hidden variables" in nature that were not recognized by the quantum mechanics. The paper spawned years of debate concerning the possibilities and requirements of quantum theory, leading to many important developments in the field and in the understanding of the nature of reality. The EPR Paradox was ultimately refuted by John Bell in 1964 when he confirmed the "incomplete" nature of reality that quantum mechanics predicted.

IN: The Physical Review,pp.777-780 Vol. 47, No. 10 (whole issue offered), May 15, 1935. Quarto, original green wrappers neatly rebacked. Custom half-leather box. Very mild toning to wrapper edges, a few wrinkles to edges of EPR article, small closed tear to bottom margin (not affecting text) of one page of EPR. Rare, particularly in original wrappers.

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