"We are thus forced to conclude that the quantum mechanical description of physical reality given by wave functions is not complete.”
FIRST EDITION of one of the most discussed and debated papers of modern physics.
In their landmark 1935 paper, Can Quantum- Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? , Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen conducted a detailed thought experiment to address the logical impossibility of quantum mechanics, ultimately concluding that because, in quantum mechanics, every element of physical reality did not have a counterpart in the physical theory, it could not be a complete theory or description of nature. Specifically, the EPR Paradox (as their study became known) argued for the presence of some "hidden variables" in nature that were not recognized by the quantum mechanics. The paper spawned years of debate concerning the possibilities and requirements of quantum theory, leading to many important developments in the field and in the understanding of the nature of reality. The EPR Paradox was ultimate refuted by John Bell in 1964 when he confirmed the "incomplete" nature of reality that quantum mechanics predicted.
In: Physical Review, pp.777-780, Vol. 47, No. 10, May 15, 1935. Lancaster, PA and New York, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1935. Quarto, contemporary cloth-backed boards. The whole volume offered. Some browning to series title, rubbing to binding. Provenance : with library and de-accession stamps on series title from the prestigious Gmelin Institute (after 1996, part of the Max Planck Institute).