## The Quantum Theory of the Electron

FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of one of the major milestones of modern science: the introduction of Dirac’s wave equation uniting quantum mechanics and special relativity.

“Dirac's outstandingly significant achievement was his relativistic wave equation for the electron. Earlier attempts to formulate a relativistic Schrödinger wave equation had failed, but in early 1928, Dirac found a new wave equation of the same formal structure as Schrödinger's (HΨ = EΨ), but with a Hamilton function (H) that made the equation fit the requirements of relativity. The new equation was of the first order in both the time and space derivatives and included a new type of matrix with four rows and columns (Dirac matrices). The Dirac equation led to many empirically correct predictions and was immediately hailed as a great theoretical progress. The Dirac matrices are related to the Pauli spin matrices and Dirac proved that the correct value of the electron's spin appeared as a consequence of his theory. He also proved that it was possible to give an exact explanation of the hydrogen spectrum, including the so-called fine structure. ‘The quantum theory of the electron’ marked a turning-point in modern physics and the Dirac equation was received enthusiastically and created a minor industry in mathematical physics” (*Dictionary of National Biography*).

*Particle Physics, One Hundred Years of Discoveries*: "Discovery of the relativistic wave equation for the electron". *Note*: There is a “part II”, conceived and published later that is a separate paper expanding on some of the implications of the wave equations. Dirac shared the 1933 Noble Prize in Physics with Schrödinger for "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory".

IN: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A. Vol. CXVII, pp. 610-624. London: The Royal Society, 1928. Octavo, original printed wrappers; custom box. A FINE COPY.

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